ENG   GEO (Georgian Version is Under Construction)


 – A tooth of a Plio-Pleistocene rhinoceros, demonstrating that the medieval site of Dmanisi covers the secrets of the early Pleistocene.


1984 – First stone tools, indicating that Dmanisi is one of the oldest places of human occupation.


1991 – Mandible D211. This first hominin remain opened the debate about to the first human dispersal out of Africa.



1999 – Two hominin crania – D2280, D2282. These finds demonstrate that Dmanisi hominins are the oldest humans outside of Africa.


2000 – Mandible D2600, raising the possibility of two different species at Dmanisi at the same time.



2000 – Absolute dating. Uneroded basaltic lava under site is securely dated to 1.85 million years ago.



2002/2003 – Toothless hominin cranium and mandible - D3444 and D3900. This individual lived several years before death after having lost its teeth. Its condition suggests it could only eat soft plants and animal foods with the help of other individuals.


2003 - The first stone tool cutmarks were found on animal bone.



2005 - Cranium D4500. Discovery of the fifth, most complete cranium of Plio-Pleostocene Homo.



2007 – Postcranial remains of four individuals, partly associated with crania found earlier. 



2011 - Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (1.85 Ma), before the accumulation of the hominin fossil assemblage (1.77 Ma).


2013 - Publication of Skull 5 (D4500 cranium & D2600 mandible) in Sciecne magazine. 



Rhinoceros drwan by Mauricio Anton